COUNTER’s library, vendor and content provider members have contributed to the development the Code of Practice.
The Code of Practice enables publishers and vendors to produce consistent and credible usage data. This allows libraries to compare data received from different vendors and publishers, and to understand and demonstrate the value of the electronic resources to which they subscribe.
|A non-full-text database that typically contains article metadata, abstracts, and subject classifications. Used by researchers to locate publications relevant to their research.||PubMed, PsycInfo|
|A&I service||A vendor or website that provides A&I databases.||American Psychological Association (APA)|
|Abstract||A short summary of an article or content item.
A detailed view of article metadata that includes the summary but not the full text. Accessing the abstract/detailed view falls into the usage category of Investigations.
|Abstract and Index Database Host||See A&I service.||APA, EBSCOhost, ProQuest|
|Accepted manuscript||The version of a journal article that has been accepted for publication in a journal. This version includes any pre-publication revisions, but it does not include any formatting or copyediting changes or corrections.|
|Access Denied||User is denied access to a content item because their institution lacks a proper license or because simultaneous user limits specified in the license have been exceeded.|
|Access Denied: Limit_Exceeded||User is denied access to a content item because the simultaneous user limit for their institution’s license would be exceeded.|
|Access Denied: No_License||User is denied access to a content item because the user or the user’s institution does not have access rights under an agreement with the content provider.|
|Access_Method||A COUNTER attribute indicating whether the usage related to investigations and requests was generated by a human user browsing and searching a website (Regular) or by Text and Data Mining processes (TDM).||Regular, TDM|
|Access_Type||A COUNTER attribute used to report on the nature of access control restrictions, if any, placed on the content item at the time when the content item was accessed.||Controlled, OA_Gold_APC, OA_Gold_Non_APC, OA_Delayed, Other_Free_to_Read|
|Aggregated_Full_Content||A COUNTER Host_Type for content providers who license full-text articles and possibly non-textual content (beyond bibliographic information).|
|Aggregated full content database||A database that contains full-text articles and possibly non-textual content (beyond bibliographic information) and that is sold as a self-contained/pre-set grouping of data.||Academic Search Complete|
|Aggregated full content database host||A content host that provides access to aggregated full content databases.||EBSCOhost, ProQuest|
|Aggregator||A type of content provider that hosts content from multiple publishers, delivers content direct to customers, and is paid for this service by customers.||EBSCOhost, Gale, Lexis Nexis,
|ALPSP||The Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers is an international trade association of non-profit publishers.|
|APC||See Article processing charge.|
|API||Application Programming Interface.|
|Article||An item of original written work published in a journal, other serial publication, or in a book. An article is complete, but usually cites other relevant published works in its list of references, if it has one.
A COUNTER Data_Type.
|Article header||See Metadata.|
|Article processing charges||An article processing charge (APC), also known as a publication fee, is a fee which is sometimes charged to authors to make a work available open access in either an open access journal or hybrid journal. …They are the most common funding method for professionally published open access articles. [Wikipedia]|
|Article_Version||Defined by ALPSP and NISO as a classification of the version of an Article as it goes through its publication life-cycle.
An element on a COUNTER Expanded Item report that identifies the version of the Article being accessed.
Typically COUNTER usage reporting only reflects usage of the following article versions (of the 7 versions defined by the ALPSP/NISO JAV Technical Working Group):
· Accepted Manuscript (AM)
· Version of Record (VoR)
· Corrected Version of Record (CVoR)
· Enhanced Version of Record (EVoR).
|AM, VoR, CVoR, EVoR|
|Articles in press||Full-text articles that have been accepted for publication in a journal and have been made available online to customers and that will be assigned a publication date of the current year or a future year.|
|Attribute||Used to specify a Report Filter when customizing a Master Report.|
|Author(s)||The person/people who wrote/created the items whose usage is being reported.|
|Automated search||A search from a discovery layer or similar technology where multiple Databases are searched simultaneously with a single query from the user interface. The end user is not responsible for selecting which Databases are being searched. Usage of this nature is reported as Searches_Automated.
A Search run repeatedly (i.e. daily or weekly) by a script or automated process. Usage of this nature must not be included in COUNTER reports.
|Automated search agent||A script or automated process that runs a search repeatedly, usually at pre-set intervals such as daily or weekly.|
|Backfile||See Archive.||Oxford Journals Archive|
|Begin_Date||The first date in the range for the usage represented in a COUNTER report.|
|Book||A non-serial publication of any length available in print (in hard or soft covers or in loose-leaf format) or in electronic format.
A COUNTER Data Type.
|Book Access Denied||Access Denied activity for books, where users were denied access because simultaneous-user licenses were exceeded, or their institution did not have a license for the book.|
|Book chapter||A subdivision of a book or of some categories of reference work; usually numbered and titled.|
|Book Request||Book content items retrieved.|
|Book Section||See Section_Type.|
|Book Segment||See Section_Type.|
|Bulk download||A single event where multiple content items are downloaded to the user’s computer.|
|Cache||Automated system that collects items from remote servers to serve closer and more efficiently to a given population of users. Often populated by robots or modern browsers.
Note: Publishers take steps to prevent local caching of their content, i.e. including appropriate headers on their site to restrict caching.
|Central Index||Also known as a Discovery Index. A collection of locally-hosted, consistently indexed metadata and content harvested from multiple external metadata and content sources, frequently including a library’s catalog and repository metadata, and usually representing a significant portion of the library’s collection.
|Certified Public Accountant (CPA)||An accounting designation granted to accounting professionals in the United States.|
|Chapter||A subdivision of a book or of some categories of reference work, usually numbered and titled.
A COUNTER Section_Type.
|Chartered Accountant (CA)||An international accounting designation granted to accounting professionals in many countries around the world, aside from the United States.|
|Citation||A reference to a published or unpublished source.|
|Collection||A subset of the content of a service. A collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more vendors that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group.
For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like databases. See Database.
Note: A package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a database or a collection.
|Component||A uniquely identifiable constituent part of a content item composed of more than one file (digital object). See Section 3.|
|Consortium||A group of institutions joining together to license content.||Ohiolink|
|Consortium member||An institution that has obtained access to online information resources as part of a consortium.
A consortium member is defined by a subset of the consortium’s range of IP addresses or by other specific authentication details.
|Ohio State University|
|Content host||A website that provides access to content typically accessed by patrons of libraries and other research institutions.|
|Content item||A generic term describing a unit of content accessed by a user of a content host. Typical content items include articles, books, chapters, multimedia, etc.|
|Content provider||An organization whose function is to commission, create, collect, validate, host, distribute, and trade information in electronic form.||Any publisher, the Metropolitan Museum, Magnum, JSTOR|
|Controlled||An access type. At the time of the transaction, the content item was not open (i.e. was behind a paywall) because access is restricted to authorized users. Access of content due to a trial subscription would be considered Controlled not Other_Free_to_Read.|
|Copyright holder||A person or a company who owns any one of the Exclusive Rights of copyright in a work.|
|Corrected Version of Record||A version of the Version of Record of a journal article in which errors in the VoR have been corrected. The errors could be author errors, publisher errors, or other processing errors.|
|COUNTER compliance pending||Status of a vendor who is currently not compliant but whose audit is in progress or scheduled.|
|COUNTER Report Validation Tool||An online tool to validate COUNTER reports in JSON and tabular format.|
|COUNTER_SUSHI API||A RESTful implementation of SUSHI automation intended to return COUNTER Release 5 reports and snippets of COUNTER usage in JSON format.|
|Crawler||See Internet robot, crawler, spider.|
|Created||COUNTER Element Name. The date and time the usage was prepared, in RFC3339 date-time format (yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ssZ).|
|Created by||COUNTER Element Name. The name of the organization or system that created the COUNTER report.|
|Crossref||A not-for-profit membership organization for publishers.|
|Customer||An individual or organization that can access a specified range of the Content provider’s services and/or content and is subject to terms and conditions agreed with the Content provider.|
|Customer_ID||The field in the COUNTER reports that indicates whose usage is being reported. May be a proprietary or standard value such as ISNI.||ISNI=000000012150090X|
|Data harvesting||Automated processes used for extracting data from websites.|
|Data_Repository||An online database service; an archive that manages the long-term storage and preservation of digital resources and provides a catalogue for discovery and access.
A COUNTER host type.
|Data Types, Data_Type||The field identifying type of content. COUNTER recognizes the following Data_Types:
· Book Segment
· Repository Item
|Database||A collection of electronically stored data or unit records (facts, bibliographic data, texts) with a common user interface and software for the retrieval and manipulation of data. (NISO)
A COUNTER Data_Type used when reporting search activity at the database level.
|Social Science Abstracts, Reaxys|
|Database Master Report||A report that contains additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports and are aggregated to the database level.|
|Delayed open access||At the time of the transaction, the content item published in a subscription journal is free to read after an embargo period. See OA_Delayed.|
|Digital Object Identifier||See DOI.|
|Discovery Layer||A web-accessible interface for searching, browsing, filtering, and otherwise interacting with indexed metadata and content. The searches produce a single, relevancy-ranked results set, usually displayed as a list with links to full content, when available. Typically, discovery layers are customizable by subscribing libraries and may be personalized by individual users.
|A pre-harvested central index coupled with fully featured discovery layer.||EDS, Primo, Summon|
|Discovery services provider||An organization that hosts a discovery service.||EBSCOhost (EDS), ProQuest (Primo/Summon)|
|Distributed Usage Logging (DUL)||A peer-to-peer channel for the secure exchange and processing of COUNTER-compliant private usage records from hosting platforms to publishers.|
|DNS lookups||Domain Name System lookups.|
|DOI (digital object identifier)||The digital object identifier is a means of identifying a piece of intellectual property (a creation) on a digital network, irrespective of its current location. (www.doi.org)
DOIs may be assigned at the title, article/chapter, or component level.
|Double-click||A repeated click on the same link by the same user within a period of 30 seconds.
COUNTER requires that double-clicks must be counted as a single click.
|Double-click filtering||A process to remove the potential of over-counting which could occur when a user clicks the same link multiple times. Double-click filtering applies to all metric types.|
|DR||Database Master Report.|
|DR_D1||Database Search and Item Usage. A pre-set Standard View of DR showing total item investigations and requests, as well as searches.|
|DR_D2||Database Access Denied. A pre-set Standard View of DR showing where users were denied access because simultaneous use (concurrency) licenses were exceeded, or their institution did not have a license for the database.|
|DUL||See Distributed Usage Logging (DUL).|
|eBook host||A content host that provides access to eBook and reference work content.||EBL, EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect|
|eBook, E-Book||Monographic content that is published online.|
|eJournal||Serial content that is published online.|
|eJournal host||A content host that provides access to online serial publications (journals, conferences, newspapers, etc.)||ScienceDirect|
|Element||A piece of information to be reported on, displayed as a column heading (and/or in the Report Header) in a COUNTER report.||Listed for each Master Report in section 4.|
|Embargo period||The period of time before an article is moved out from behind the paywall, i.e. from Controlled to OA_Delayed.|
|End_Date||The last date in the range for the usage represented in a COUNTER report.
|Enhanced Version of Record||A version of the Version of Record of a journal article that has been updated or enhanced by the provision of supplementary material. For example, multimedia objects such as audio clips and applets; additional XML-tagged sections, tables, or figures or raw data.|
|Error_No||A unique numeric code included as part of a COUNTER SUSHI exception that identifies the type of error that applies to a report.|
|Exception||An optional element that may be included within a COUNTER report indicating some difference between the usage that was requested and the usage that is being presented in the report. An exception includes the following elements:
· and the data itself.
|3040: Partial Data Returned (request was for 2016-01-01 to 2016-12-31, but usage is only available to 2016-08-30).|
|Exclude_Monthly_Details||Reporting_Period_Total column without month-by-month breakdowns.|
|Federated search||A federated search application that allows users to simultaneously search multiple databases hosted by the same or different vendors with a single query from a single user interface. The end user is not responsible for selecting the database being searched. See Appendix G.||MetaLib, EBSCOhost Connection|
|Filter||See Report filter.|
|Format||A COUNTER Element Name used to identify the format of the content. Reserved values include: HTML, PDF, Other.|
|Full-text database||A database that consists of full-text articles or other non-textual content beyond bibliographic information and that is sold as a self-contained/pre-set grouping of data.|
|Full-text article||The complete text—including all references, figures, and tables—of an article, plus links to any supplementary material published with it.|
|GDPR||General Data Protection Regulation.|
|GET/status||COUNTER_SUSHI API path. Returns the current status of the COUNTER_SUSHI API service.|
|GET/reports||COUNTER_SUSHI API path. Returns a list of reports supported by the COUNTER_SUSHI API service.|
|GET/members||COUNTER_SUSHI API path. Returns the list of consortium members or sites for multi-site customers.|
|Gold Open Access||See OA_Gold.|
|Host||See Content host.||Ingenta, Semantico, SpringerLink|
|Host Site||See Content host.|
|Host types||A categorization of Content Hosts used by COUNTER to facilitate implementation of the Code of Practice. The Code of Practice identifies the Host types that apply to the various artefacts in the Code of Practice, allowing a Content Host to quickly identify the areas of the Code of Practice to implement by identifying the Host Types categories that apply to them.||·
|Host UI, host-site UI||User interface that an end-user would use to access content on the Content host.|
|HTTP||HyperText Transfer Protocol.|
|Hybrid publication||A publication that is available via a subscription license but also contains articles available as Gold Open Access.|
|Institution||The organization for which usage is being reported.|
|Institution_ID||A unique identifier for an institution. In COUNTER reports the Institution_ID is presented as a combination of the identifier type and its value. Proprietary identifiers that identify the content platform can be used.||isni=000000012150090X
|Institution_Name||The field in the COUNTER reports that indicates the name of the institution.|
|Institutional identifier||See Institution_ID.|
|Intermediary||See Content provider.|
|Internet robot, crawler, spider||Any automated program or script that visits websites and systematically retrieves information from them, often to provide indexes for search engines. See Appendix I.|
|Investigation||A category of COUNTER metric types that represent a user accessing information related to a content item (i.e. an abstract or detailed descriptive metadata of an article) or a content item itself (i.e. full text of an article).|
|IP address||Internet protocol (IP) address of the computer on which the session is conducted. May be used by content providers as a means of authentication and authorization and for identifying the institution a user is affiliated with.
The identifying network address (typically four 8-bit numbers: aaa.bbb.cc.dd) of the user’s computer or proxy.
|IR||Item Master Report.|
|IR_A1||Journal Article Requests. A pre-set Standard View of IR showing total item requests for journal articles.|
|IR_M1||Multimedia Item Requests. A pre-set Standard View of IR showing total item requests for multimedia items.|
|ISBN (International Standard Book Number)||A unique 13-digit number used to identify a book.|
|ISIL||International Standard Identifier for Libraries and Related Organizations – https://english.slks.dk/work-areas/libraries/library-standards/isil/|
|ISNI (International Standard Name Identifier)||A unique number used to identify authors, contributors, and distributors of creative works, including researchers, inventors, writers, artists, visual creators, performers, producers, publishers, aggregators, etc.
COUNTER defines ISNI as an optional identifier for an institution.
|ISO||International Organization for Standardization.|
|ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)||A unique 8-digit number used to identify a print or electronic periodical publication. A periodical published in both print and electronic form may have two ISSNs, a print ISSN and an electronic ISSN.|
|Issue||A collection of journal articles that share a specific issue number and are presented as an identifiable unit online and/or as a physically bound and covered set of numbered pages in print.|
|Issue date||The date of release by the publisher to customers of a journal issue.
When used for COUNTER YOP (year of publication) reporting, the issue date of the print should be used when print and online issue dates differ.
|Item||Collective term for content that is reported at a high level of granularity, e.g. a full-text article (original or a review of other published work), an abstract or digest of a full-text article, a sectional HTML page, supplementary material associated with a full-text article (e.g. a supplementary data set), or non-textual resources such as an image, a video, audio, a dataset, a piece of code, or a chemical structure or reaction.||Full text article, TOC, Abstract, Database record, Dataset, Thesis|
|Item Master Report||A COUNTER report that provides usage data at the item or item-component level.|
|Item Reports||A series of COUNTER reports that provide usage data at the item or item-component level.|
|Journal||A serial that is a branded and continually growing collection of original articles within a particular discipline.
A COUNTER data type.
|Journal DOI||See DOI.|
|Journal Reports||See Title Reports.|
|Journal Requests||Journal content items retrieved.|
|License||A contract or agreement that provides an organization or individual (licensee) with the right to access certain content.|
|Limit_Exceeded||A COUNTER Metric_Type. User is denied access to a content item because the simultaneous user limit for their institution’s license would be exceeded.|
|Linking_ISSN||International Standard Serial Number that links together the ISSNs assigned to all instances of a serial publication in the format nnnn-nnn[nX] (JSON reports only).|
|Log file analysis||A method of collecting usage data in which the web server records all of its transactions.|
|Master Reports||Reports that contain additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports.|
|Metadata||A series of textual elements that describes a content item but does not include the item itself. For example, metadata for a journal article would typically include publisher, journal title, volume, issue, page numbers, copyright information, a list of names and affiliations of the authors, author organization addresses, the article title and an abstract of the article, and keywords or other subject classifications.|
|Metadata provider||An organization, such as a publisher, that provides descriptive article/item-level metadata to an online search service.|
|Metric Types, Metric_Types||An attribute of COUNTER usage that identifies the nature of the usage activity. See Sections 4.1.3; 4.2.3; 4.3.3; 4.4.3.||Total_Requests
|Monograph Text||See Book.|
|Multimedia||Non-textual media such as images, audio, and video.|
|A grouping of multimedia items that are hosted and searched as a single unit and behave like a database.
A COUNTER host type.
See also Database.
|Multimedia host||A content host that provides access to multimedia content.|
|Multimedia item||An item of non-textual media content such as an image or streaming or downloadable audio or video files. (Does not include thumbnails or descriptive text/metadata.)|
|NISO||The National Information Standards Organization is a United States non-profit standards organization that develops, maintains and publishes technical standards related to publishing, bibliographic and library applications. [Wikipedia]|
|Namespace||A term primarily used in programming languages where the same name may be used for different objects. It is created to group together those names that might be repeated elsewhere within the same or interlinked programs, objects and elements.
For example, an XML namespace consists of element types and attribute names. Each of the names within that namespace is only related/linked to that namespace. The name is uniquely identified by the namespace identifier ahead of the name. For example, Namespace1_ John and Namespace2_John are same names but within different namespaces.
|Newspaper or Newsletter||Textual content published serially in a newspaper or newsletter.|
|No_License||A COUNTER Metric_Type. User is denied access to a content item because the user or the user’s institution does not have access rights under an agreement with the vendor.|
|OA||See Open access.|
|OA_Delayed||A COUNTER Access_Type.
At the time of the transaction, the content item was available as open access because publisher’s embargo period had expired (delayed open access).
|OA_Gold||A COUNTER Access_Type. At the time of the transaction, the content item was immediately and permanently available as open access because an APC (article processing charge) has been paid. Content items may be in hybrid publication or fully open access publication.
Note that content items offered as delayed open access (open after an embargo period) would be classified as OA_Delayed.
|OCLC||OCLC (Online Computer Library Center). An American non-profit cooperative organization “dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world’s information and reducing information costs”. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. [Wikipedia]|
|Online_ISSN||A COUNTER identifier for the ISSN assigned to the online manifestation of a serial work.
See also ISSN.
|Open access||Open Access (OA) refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access (e.g. access tolls) and free of many restrictions on use (e.g. certain copyright and license restrictions). Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs. [Wikipedia]|
|ORCID||An international standard identifier for individuals (i.e. authors) to use with their name as they engage in research, scholarship, and innovation activities.
A COUNTER identifier for item contributors.
|Other||A content item or section that cannot be classified by any of the other data types.|
|Other_Free_to_Read||A COUNTER Access_Type. At the time of the transaction, the content item was freely available for reading for reasons such as promotions. This also covers all journals where all articles are free to all users because the journal is funded through advertising.|
|Parent||In COUNTER Item Reports the parent is the publication an item is part of. For a journal article, the parent is the journal, and for a book chapter it is the book.|
|Paywall||A term used to describe the fact that a user attempting to access a content item must be authorized by license or must pay a fee before the content can be accessed.|
|Portable Document Format, file formatted for the Adobe Acrobat reader. Items such as full-text articles or journals published in PDF format tend to replicate the printed page in appearance.|
|PHP||Hypertext Preprocessor is a server-side scripting language designed for web development. The PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. [Wikipedia]|
|Platform||An interface from an aggregator, publisher, or other online service that delivers the content to the user and that counts and provides the COUNTER usage reports.||Wiley Online Library, HighWire|
|Platform Master Report||A Report that contains additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports, and which are aggregated to the platform level.|
|Platform Reports||A series of COUNTER reports that provide usage aggregated to the platform level.|
|Platform search||Search conducted by users of a Platform.|
|Platform usage||Activity across all metrics for entire platforms.|
|PR||Platform Master Report.|
|PR_P1||Platform Usage. A pre-set Standard View of PR showing total and unique item requests, as well as platform searches.|
|Print_ISSN||A COUNTER identifier for the ISSN assigned to the print manifestation of a work.
See also ISSN.
|Proprietary Identifier||See Proprietary_ID.|
|Proprietary_ID||A COUNTER identifier for a unique identifier given by publishers and other content providers to a product or collection of products.|
|Provider ID||A unique identifier for a content provider and used by discovery services and other content sites to track usage for content items provided by that provider.|
|Publication Date, Publication_Date||An optional field in COUNTER item reports and Provider Discovery Reports.
The date of release by the publisher to customers of a content item.
|Publisher||An organization whose function is to commission, create, collect, validate, host, distribute and trade information online and/or in printed form.||Sage, Cambridge University Press|
|Publisher_ID||A COUNTER identifier for a publisher’s unique identifier. In COUNTER reports the publisher ID is presented as a combination of identifier type and value.|
|Reference work||An authoritative source of information about a subject used to find quick answers to questions. The content may be stable or updated over time.||
Dictionary, encyclopedia, directory, manual, guide, atlas, bibliography, index
|References||A list of works referred to in an article or chapter with sufficient detail to enable the identification and location of each work.|
|Registry of compliance||The COUNTER register of content providers compliant with the COUNTER Code of Practice.|
|Regular||A COUNTER Access_Method. Indicates that usage was generated by a human user browsing/searching a website, rather than by text and data mining processes.|
|Regular search||A search conducted by a user on a host where the user is in control over which databases can be searched.|
|Release||Version of the COUNTER Code of Practice.|
|Report Attribute, Report_Attributes||A series of zero or more report attributes applied to the report. Typically, a report attribute affects how the usage is presented, but does not change the totals.||Exclude_Report_Header;
|Report filters||In COUNTER reports the report filter can be used to limit the usage returned.||Data_Type=journal|
|Report_ID||The alphanumeric identifier of a specific report Standard View.||
DR_D1: Database Search and Item Usage.
TR_J3, Journal Usage by Access Type
|Report item attributes||A series of elements that describe the nature of usage for an item and may include Access_Type, YOP, etc.|
|The name of a COUNTER report.||Journal Title Report 1|
|Report validation tool||See COUNTER Report Validation Tool.|
|Reporting period, Reporting_Period||The total time period covered in a usage report.|
|Repository||A host who provides access to an institution’s research output. Includes subject repositories, institution, department, etc.||Cranfield CERES|
|Repository item||A content item hosted in a repository, including one that consists of one or more digital objects such as text files, audio, video or data, described by associated metadata.|
|Request||A category of COUNTER Metric Types that represents a user accessing content (i.e. full text of an article).||Total_Item_Requests|
|Requestor ID||A system-generated hash identifier that uniquely identifies a requestor session.|
|Required reports||The COUNTER reports that Host_Types are required to provide.|
|Research data||Data that supports research findings and may include databases, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.|
|RESTful COUNTER_SUSHI API||A RESTful implementation of SUSHI automation intended to return COUNTER Release 5 reports and snippets of COUNTER usage in JSON format.|
|Return code||Defined and maintained by W3C (http://www.w3.org/Protocols/HTTP/HTRESP.html).|
|Robot||See Internet robot, crawler, spider.|
|Scholarly Collaboration Network||A service used by researchers to share information about their work.||Mendeley, Reddit/Science|
|Scholarly Collaboration Network data aggregator||A host who provides access to metrics on communications and interactions on scholarly collaboration networks.||Altmetric.com|
|Screen scraping||The action of using a computer program to copy data from a website.|
|Search||A user-driven intellectual query, typically equated to submitting the search form of the online service to the server.|
|Search engine||A service that allows users to search for content via the World Wide Web.|
|Searches_Regular||A COUNTER Metric Type used to report on searches conducted by a user on a host where the user is in control over which databases can be searched.
Note: If a search is conducted across multiple databases, each database searched can count that search.
See also Regular Search.
|Searches_Automated||A COUNTER Metric Type used to report searches conducted through a discovery service or by an automated search agent.
See also Automated Search.
|Searches_Federated||A COUNTER Metric Type used to report searches conducted through a federated search service. See Appendix G.
See also Federated search.
|Searches_Platform||A COUNTER Metric Type used to report searches conducted on a platform.
Note: Searches conducted against multiple databases on the platform will only be counted once.
|Section||The first level of subdivision of a book or reference work.||Chapter, entry|
|Section Types, Section_Type||A COUNTER attribute that identifies the type of section that was accessed by the user.||Article, book, chapter|
|Serial||A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. This definition includes periodicals, newspapers, and annuals (reports, yearbooks, monographic series). (NISO)|
|Server-side scripting language||Server-side scripting is a technique used in web development which involves employing scripts on a web server which produce a response customized for each user’s request to the website. The alternative is for the web server itself to deliver a static web page. [Wikipedia]|
|Service||See Content host.||ScienceDirect, Academic Universe|
|Session||A successful request of an online service. A single user connects to the service or database and ends by terminating activity that is either explicit (by leaving the service through exit or logout) or implicit (timeout due to user inactivity). (NISO)|
|Session cookie||A data file that a web server can place on a browser to track activity by a user and attribute that usage to a session.|
|Session ID||A unique identifier for a single user session or, in case of a double-click, multiple clicks on the same link within 30 seconds of each other.|
|Spider||See Internet robot, crawler, spider.|
|Standard View||A pre-defined version of a Master report, designed to meet the most common needs.||Book Requests (Excluding OA_Gold)
Journal Article Requests
|Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative||See SUSHI.|
|SUSHI||An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.
COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports.
COUNTER compliance requires content hosts to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.
|TAB Separated Value||See TSV.|
|TDM||Text and data mining (TDM) is a computational process whereby text or datasets are crawled by software that recognizes entities, relationships, and actions. (STM Publishers)
An Access_Method in a COUNTER report used to separate regular usage from usage that represents access to content for the purposes of text and data mining.
|Text and data mining||See TDM.|
|Thesis_Or_Dissertation||A COUNTER data type.
Dissertation: a long essay on a particular subject, especially one written as a requirement for the Doctor of Philosophy degree.
Thesis: a long essay or dissertation involving personal research, written by a candidate for a college degree.
|Title||The name of a book, journal, or reference work.|
|Title Master Report||A report that contains additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports and are aggregated to publication title level rather than towards individual articles/chapters.|
|Title Reports||A series of COUNTER reports where usage is aggregated to the publication title level.|
|TLS (HTTPS)||Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) protocol.|
|Total_Items_Investigations||A COUNTER Metric_Type that represents the number of times users accessed the content (i.e. full text) of an item, or information describing that item (i.e. an abstract).|
|Total_Item_Requests||A COUNTER Metric_Type that represents the number of times users requested the full content (i.e. full text) of an item. Requests may take the form of viewing, downloading, emailing, or printing content, provided such actions can be tracked by the content provider’s server.|
|TR_B1||Book Requests (Excluding “OA_Gold”). A pre-set book filter of TR showing full text activity for all content which is not Gold Open Access.
Numbers between sites will vary based on whether the content is delivered as a complete book or by chapter.
|TR_B2||Book Access Denied. A pre-set book filter of TR showing where users were denied access because simultaneous use (concurrency) licenses were exceeded, or their institution did not have a license for the database.|
|TR_B3||Book Usage by Access Type. A pre-set book filter of TR showing all applicable metric types broken down by Access_Type.|
|TR_J1||Journal Requests (Excluding OA_Gold). A pre-set journal filter of TR showing full text activity for all content which is not Gold Open Access.|
|TR_J2||Journal Accessed Denied. A pre-set journal filter of TR showing all applicable metric types broken down by Access_Type.|
|TR_J3||Journal Usage by Access Type. A pre-set journal filter of TR showing all applicable metric types broken down by Access_Type.|
|TR_J4||Journal Requests by YOP (excluding OA_Gold). A pre-set journal filter of TR breaking down the full text usage of non-Gold Open Access content by year of publication (YOP).|
|Transaction||A usage event.|
|TSV||Tab Separated Values.|
|Turnaway||See Access denied.|
|Unique item||Matchless content item.|
|Unique_Item_Investigations||A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique Content Items investigated in a user-session.|
|Unique_Item_ Requests||A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique content items investigated in a user-session. Examples of items are articles, book chapters, and multimedia files.|
|Unique title||Matchless book title.|
|Unique_Title_ Investigations||A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique titles investigated in a user-session. Examples of titles are journals and books.|
|Unique_Title_Requests||A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique titles requested in a user session. Examples of titles are journals and books.|
|URI||In information technology, a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a resource. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, using specific protocols. [Wikipedia]
An optional element on a COUNTER report used to identify the item for which usage is being reported.
|URL||Uniform Resource Locator. The address of a World Wide Web page.|
|URN||Uniform Resource Name, which identifies a resource by name in a particular namespace.|
|Usage attributes||Fields or elements used to classify or qualify COUNTER usage for analysis.||Access_Type
|User||A person who accesses the online resource.|
|User agent||An identifier that is part of the HTTP/S protocol that identifies the software (i.e. browser) being used to access the site. May be used by robots to identify themselves.|
|User cookie||A small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user’s computer by the user’s web browser while the user is browsing.|
|User session||See Session.|
|UTF-8||UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes. The encoding is defined by the Unicode Standard, and was originally designed by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. The name is derived from Unicode Transformation Format – 8-bit. [Wikipedia]|
|Vendor||A publisher or other online information provider who delivers licensed content to the customer and with whom the customer has a contractual relationship.||Taylor & Francis, EBSCO|
|Version of Record||A fixed version of a journal article that has been made available by any organization that acts as a publisher that formally and exclusively declares the article “published”.|
|W3C||The World Wide Web Consortium is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web. [Wikipedia]|
|XML||eXtensible Markup Language.|
|Year of Publication||See YOP.|
|YOP||Calendar year in which an article, item, issue, or volume is published.
For the COUNTER_YOP attribute, use the year of publication for the print when it differs from the online.
|Z39.50||An international standard protocol created by NISO for search. A Z39.50 client can search any Z39.50-compatible online service. Often used by federated search services to facilitate searching content at other sites.|
Since its inception in 2002, COUNTER has been focused on providing a code of practice that helps ensure librarians have access to consistent, comparable, and credible usage reporting for their online scholarly information. COUNTER serves librarians, content providers, and others by facilitating the recording and exchange of online usage statistics. The COUNTER Code of Practice provides guidance on data elements to be measured and definitions of these data elements, as well as guidelines for output report content and formatting and requirements for data processing and auditing. To have their usage statistics and reports designated COUNTER compliant, content providers MUST provide usage statistics that conform to the current Code of Practice.
The purpose of the COUNTER Code of Practice is to facilitate the recording, exchange, and interpretation of online usage data by establishing open international standards and protocols for the provision of content-provider-generated usage statistics that are consistent, comparable, and credible.
This COUNTER Code of Practice provides a framework for the recording and exchange of online usage statistics for the major categories of e-resources (journals, databases, books, reference works, anddatabases) at an international level. In doing so, it covers the following areas: data elements to be measured, definitions of these data elements, content and format of usage reports, requirements for data processing, requirements for auditing, and guidelines to avoid duplicate counting.
COUNTER is designed for librarians, content providers and others who require reliable online usage statistics. The guidelines provided by this Code of Practice enable librarians to compare statistics from different platforms, to make better-informed purchasing decisions, and to plan more effectively. COUNTER also provides content providers with the detailed specifications they need to follow to generate data in a format useful to their customers, to compare the relative usage of different delivery channels, and to learn more about online usage patterns. COUNTER also provides guidance to others interested in information about online usage statistics.
COUNTER provides an open Code of Practice that evolves in response to the demands of the international library andSection 12 below.communities. The Code of Practice is continually under review; feedback on its scope and application are actively sought from all interested parties. See
The COUNTER Code of Practice is owned and developed by Counter Online Metrics (COUNTER), a non-profit distributing company registered in England. A Board of Directors governs Counter Online Metrics. An Executive Committee reports to the Board, and the day-to-day management of COUNTER is the responsibility of the Project Director.
This Code of Practice provides definitions of data elements and other terms that are relevant, not only to the usage reports specified in Release 5 (R5), but also to other reports that content providers may wish to generate. Every effort has been made to use existing ISO, NISO, etc. definitions where appropriate, and these sources are cited (see Appendix A).
The COUNTER Code of Practice will be extended and upgraded as necessary based on input from the communities it serves. Each new version will be made available as a numbered release on the COUNTER website; users will be alerted to its availability. R5 of the Code of Practice replaces Release 4 (R4) of the Code of Practice. The deadline date for implementation of this Release is 01-Jan-2019. After this date, only those content providers compliant with R5 will be deemed compliant with the Code of Practice.
COUNTER R5 introduces a continuous maintenance process (see Section 12 below) that will allow the Code of Practice to evolve over time minimizing the need for major version changes.
An independent annual audit is REQUIRED of each content provider’s reports and processes to certify that they are COUNTER compliant. The auditing process is designed to be simple, straightforward and not unduly burdensome or costly to theSection 9 below and Appendix E for more details.while providing reassurance to customers of the reliability of the COUNTER usage data. See
The COUNTER Code of Practice builds on several existing industry initiatives and standards that address content provider-based online performance measures. Where appropriate, definitions of data elements and other terms from these sources have been used in this Code of Practice, and these are identified in Appendix A.
The COUNTER Executive Committee welcomes comments on the Code of Practice (see Section 12 below).
Changes in the nature of online content and how it is accessed have resulted in the COUNTER Code of Practice evolving in an attempt to accommodate those changes. This evolution resulted in some ambiguities and, in some cases, conflicts and confusions within the Code of Practice. R5 of the COUNTER Code of Practice is focused on improving the clarity, consistency, and comparability of usage reporting.
R5 of the COUNTER Code of Practice reduces the overall number of reports by replacing many of the special-purpose reports that are seldom used with a small number of flexible generic reports. All COUNTER R4 reports have either been renamed or eliminated in favour of other COUNTER R5 report options.
See Appendix B, Section 1.1 for more details.
With R5, all COUNTER reports are structured the same way to ensure consistency, not only between reports, but also between the JSON and tabular versions of the reports. Now, all reports share the same format for the header, the report body is derived from the same set of element names, total rows have been eliminated, and data values are consistent between the JSON and tabular version. R5 also addresses the problems of terminology and report layouts varying from report to report, as well as JSON and tabular versions of the same report producing different results while still being compliant.
R5 strives for simplicity and clarity by reducing the number of Metric_Types and applying these Metric_Types across all reports, as applicable. With R4, Book Reports hadthat could be considered different from in Journal Reports and attempting to reflect additional attributes such as mobile usage, usage by format, etc. Most R4 have either been renamed or eliminated in favour of new R5 Metric_Types.
See Appendix B, Section B.1.2 for a table showing the R4 and their R5 equivalence or status.
With R4 the nature of the usage sometimes had to be inferred based on the name of the report. To provide more consistent and comparable reporting, R5 introduces some additional attributes that content providers can use to create breakdowns and summaries of usage.
|Access_Type||Used to track usage of content that is either OA_Gold (Gold Open Access) or Controlled (requires a license).|
|Access_Method||Used to track if the purpose of the access was foruse or for text and data mining (TDM). This attribute allows usage to be excluded from Standard Views and reported on separately.|
|Data_Type||Identifies the type of content usage being reported on. Expanded to include additional Data_Types, including Article, Book, Book_Segment, Database, Dataset, Journal, Multimedia, Newspaper_or_Newsletter, Other, Platform, Report, Repository_Item, and Thesis_or_Dissertation.|
|Publisher_ID||Introduced to improve matching and reporting by publisher.|
|Section_Type||Identifies the type of section that was accessed by the user, including Article, Book, Chapter, Other and Section. Used primarily for reporting onusage where content is delivered by section.|
|YOP||Year of publication as a single element, simplifies reporting by content age.|