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The COUNTER Code of Practice for Research Data

The Code of Practice for Research Data Usage Metrics standardizes the generation and distribution of usage metrics for research data, enabling for the first time the consistent and credible reporting of research data usage.

COUNTER welcomes input and feedback from the community on this first iteration, so that it can be further developed and refined.

 

 
Code of Practice
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Glossary

Appendix A: Glossary of Terms for CoPRD

Aligned as much as possible with the COUNTER Code of Practice Release 5 glossary.

Abstract See Description.
Access_Method A COUNTER attribute indicating whether the usage related to investigations and requests was generated by a human user browsing and searching a website (Regular) or by a computer (Machine).
Author(s) See Creator
Collection A curated collection of metadata about content items.
Component A uniquely identifiable constituent part of a content item composed of more than one file (digital object).
Content item A generic term describing a unit of content accessed by a user of a content host. Typical content items include articles, books, chapters, datasets, multimedia, etc.
Content provider An organization whose function is to commission, create, collect, validate, host, distribute, and trade information in electronic form.
Creator(s) The person/people who wrote/created the datasets whose usage is being reported-
Data repository A content provider that provides access to research data.
Data type The field identifying type of content. The Code of Practice for Research Data Usage Metrics only recognizes the Data type Dataset.
Dataset An aggregation of data, published or curated by a single agent, and available for access or download in one or more formats, with accompanying metadata. Other term: data package.
Description A short description of a dataset. Accessing the description falls into the usage category of Investigations.
DOI (digital object identifier) The digital object identifier is a means of identifying a piece of intellectual property (a creation) on a digital network, irrespective of its current location (IDF).
Double-click A repeated click or repeated access to the same resource by the same user within a period of 30 seconds. COUNTER requires that double-clicks must be counted as a single click.
Host types A categorization of Content Providers used by COUNTER. The Code of Practice for Research Data Usage Metrics uses the following host types:

●      Repository

●      Data Repository

Internet robot, crawler, spider An identifiable, automated program or script that visits websites and systematically retrieves information from them, often to provide indexes for search engines rather than for research. Not all programs or scripts are classified as robots.
Investigation A category of COUNTER metric types that represent a user accessing information related to a dataset (i.e. a description or detailed descriptive metadata) or the content of the dataset itself.
Log file analysis A method of collecting usage data in which the web server records all of its transactions.
Machine A category of COUNTER Metric Types that represents a machine accessing content, e.g. a script written by a researcher. This does not include robots, crawlers and spiders.
Master reports Reports that contain additional filters and breakdowns beyond those included in the standard COUNTER reports.
Metadata A series of textual elements that describes a content item but does not include the item itself. For example, metadata for a dataset would typically include publisher, a list of names and affiliations of the creators, the title and description, and keywords or other subject classifications.
Metric types, Metric_Type An attribute of COUNTER usage that identifies the nature of the usage activity.
ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) An international standard identifier for individuals (i.e. authors) to use with their name as they engage in research, scholarship, and innovation activities.
Persistent Identifier (PID) Globally unique identifier and associated metadata for research data, or other entities (articles, researchers, scholarly institutions) relevant in scholarly communication.
Platform An interface from an aggregator, publisher, or other online service that delivers the content to the user and that counts and provides the COUNTER usage reports.
Provider ID A unique identifier for a Content Provider and used by discovery services and other content sites to track usage for content items provided by that provider.
Publication date, Publication_Date An optional field in COUNTER item reports and Provider Discovery Reports. The date of release by the publisher to customers of a content item.
Publisher An organization whose function is to commission, create, collect, validate, host, distribute and trade information online and/or in printed form.
Regular A COUNTER Access_Method. Indicates that usage was generated by a human user browsing/searching a website, rather than by a computer.
Reporting period, Reporting_Period The total time period covered in a usage report.
Request A category of COUNTER Metric Types that represents a user accessing the dataset content.
Session A successful request of an online service. A single user connects to the service or database and ends by terminating activity that is either explicit (by leaving the service through exit or logout) or implicit (timeout due to user inactivity). (NISO).
SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports. Research Data SUSHI API Specification is an implementation of this standard for harvesting Code of Practice for Research Data Usage Metrics reports.
Total_Dataset_Investigations A COUNTER Metric_Type that represents the number of times users accessed the content of a dataset, or information describing that dataset (i.e. metadata).
Total_Dataset_Requests A COUNTER Metric_Type that represents the number of times users requested the content of a dataset. Requests may take the form of viewing, downloading, or emailing the dataset provided such actions can be tracked by the content provider’s server.
Transactions A usage event.
Unique_Dataset_Investigations A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique “Datasets” investigated in a user-session.
Unique_Dataset_Requests A COUNTER Metric Type that represents the number of unique datasets requested in a user-session.
User A person who accesses the online resource.
User agent An identifier that is part of the HTTP/S protocol that identifies the software (i.e. browser) being used to access the site. May be used by robots to identify themselves.
Version Multiple versions of a dataset are defined by significant changes to the content and/or metadata, associated with changes in one or more components.
Year of publication Calendar year in which a dataset is published.

 

 

3.0 Technical Specifications for Reports

3.1 Reports for Libraries and Data Centers

3.1.1 Master Reports

Master Reports include all relevant metrics and attributes; they are intended to be customizable through the application of filters Limits or restrictions placed on the usage to be included in a COUNTER report usually expressed as a name-value pair, i.e. “Access_Type=Controlled”and other configuration options, allowing users to create a report specific to their needs. The Dataset See “Data_Type”.Master Report used in the Code of Practice for Research Data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.Usage Metrics are shown in Table 3.1, along with its Report ID, Report Name and Host Types who are expected to provide these reports (see Section 3.3.1 for details on Host Types).

Table 3.1: Master Reports

Report_ID Report_Name Details Host Types

MUST be provided

DSR Dataset Master Report A granular customizable report showing activity at the level of the dataset See “Data_Type”.that allows the user A person who accesses the online resourceto apply filters Limits or restrictions placed on the usage to be included in a COUNTER report usually expressed as a name-value pair, i.e. “Access_Type=Controlled”and select configuration options. Repository

Data Repository

 

3.2 Formats for Reports

Code of Practice for Research Data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.Usage Metrics reports can be delivered in tabular form or as machine-readable JSON file via the SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.protocol. The tabular form MUST be a tab-separated-value Unicode text file. The machine-readable format MUST comply with the Research Data SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.API Specification (See Section 8).

All reports have the same layout and structure. Note that the Research Data SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.API Specification includes the same elements with the same or similar names; therefore, understanding the tabular reports translates to an understanding of what is REQUIRED in reports retrieved via SUSHI.

All reports have a header. In tabular reports, the header is separated from the body with a blank row. Beneath that is the body of the report with column headings. The contents of the body will vary by report. All of this is discussed in more detail below.

3.2.1 Report Header

The first 10 rows of a tabular report contain the header, and the 11th row is always blank. The COUNTER Code of Practice Release 5 rows Institution_Name and Institution_ID are not used. The header information is presented as a series of name-value pairs, with the names appearing in Column A and the corresponding values appearing in Column B. All tabular reports have the same names in Column A. Column B entries will vary by report.

Table 3.2: Report Header Elements

Element Name Description of value to provide Example
Report_Name The name of the report as it appears in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 of this document. Must be Dataset See “Data_Type”.Report. Dataset Report
Report_ID The unique identifier for the reports that is used in SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.requests. dsr-12hd-zt65
Release The Code of Practice for Research Data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.Usage Metrics release this report complies with. Must be RD1. RD1
Metric_Types A semicolon-space (“; “) delimited list of metric types An attribute of COUNTER usage that identifies the nature of the usage activity.requested for this report. Note that even though a Metric Type was requested, it might not be included in the body of the report if no report items had usage of that type. Unique_Dataset_Investigations; Unique_Dataset_Requests
Report_Filters A series of zero or more report filters Limits or restrictions placed on the usage to be included in a COUNTER report usually expressed as a name-value pair, i.e. “Access_Type=Controlled”applied on the reported usage, excluding metric types (which appear in a separate row). Typically, a report filter In COUNTER Reports the “Report Filter” can be used to limit the usage returned in a report.affects the amount of usage reported. Entries appear in the form of “filter_Name=filter_Value” with multiple filter name-value pairs separated with a semicolon-space (“; “) and multiple filter values for a single filter name separated by the vertical pipe (“|”) character. Access_Method=Regular;

Access_Method=Machine

Report_Attributes A series of zero or more report attributes applied to the report. Typically, a report attribute In COUNTER Reports the “Report Attributes” can be used to modify how a report should be presented.  Typically, a “Report Attribute” will not limit or filter the usage being presented.affects how the usage is presented but does not change the numbers.

Entries appear in the form of “attribute_name=attribute_value” with multiple attribute name-value pairs separated with a semicolon-space (”; ”) and multiple attribute values for a single attribute name separated by the vertical pipe (“|”) character.

Attributes_To_Show=Access_Method
Exceptions An indication of some difference between the usage that was created and the usage that is being presented in the report. The format for the exception values are: “Error_No: Exception_Description” (Data). The Error_No and Exception_Description MUST match values provided in Table B.1 of Appendix B. The data is OPTIONAL.

Note that for tabular reports, only the limited set of exceptions An optional element that may be included with a COUNTER report indicating of some difference between the usage that was requested and the usage that is being presented in the report. An exception includes the following elements:  “Error_No” “Exception_Description” and data.where usage is returned will apply.

3040: Partial Data Returned (request was for 2016-01-01 to 2016-12-31; however, usage is only available to 2016-08-30).

 

3040: Partial Data Returned

Reporting_Period The date range for the usage represented in the report, in the form of: “begin_date=yyyy-mm-dd”; “end_date=yyyy-mm-dd”. Should conform with ISO 8601 (ISO 8601:2004 – Data elements and interchange formats, 2004).

The begin_date MUST be the first day of the month, whereas the end_date can be the last day of the month for a complete monthly report, or any other day in the month for a partial monthly report (See Section 3.3.7)

begin_date=2016-01-01; end_date=2016-08-30
Created The date the usage was prepared, in the form of “yyyy-mm-dd” according to ISO 8601 (ISO 8601:2004 – Data elements and interchange formats, 2004). 2016-10-11
Created_By The name of the organization or system that created the report DataONE
(blank row) Row 11 MUST be blank

 

3.3 Report Common Attributes and Elements

COUNTER Code of Practice Release 5 introduced several new elements and attributes in order to help organize the information in a single, consistent, and coherent Code of Practice. The Code of Practice for Research Data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.Usage Metrics uses a subset of these elements and attributes relevant for research data.

3.3.1 Host Types

Research data usage reports are provided by different types of content hosts, and the usage reporting needs vary by host type. Although the “Host Type” does not appear on the report, the Code of Practice uses “Host Types” throughout this document to help content providers identify which reports, elements, metric types, and attributes are relevant to them.

The Code of Practice for Research Data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.Usage Metrics uses the following host types:

Table 3.3: List of Host Types

Host Type Category Description Example
Repository A repository A “Content Host” who provides access to an “Institution’s” research output.  Includes subject repositories, institution, department, etc.that hosts multiple research output types including research data. Institutional repositories are typically in this category. Figshare

 

Data Repository A research data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.repository hosting only research data. Disciplinary repositories are typically in this category. CDL Dash,

Dryad Digital Repository

3.3.2 Data Types

The COUNTER Code of Practice Release 5 reports scholarly information in many ways. These major groupings are referred to as Data Types. Only the Dataset Data Types are used by the Code of Practice for Research Data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.Usage Metrics. Reporting of collections is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like databases.

Table 3.4: List of Data Types

Data Type Description Host Types Reports (Abbrev)
Dataset A dataset Repository

Data Repository

DSR

3.3.4 Metric types

The following metric types An attribute of COUNTER usage that identifies the nature of the usage activity.are defined to enable reporting. There is no significant difference to the COUNTER Code of Practice Release 5.

Investigations and Requests of Items and Titles

This group of Metric Types represents activities where datasets were retrieved (Requests) or information about a dataset (e.g. metadata) was examined (Investigations).  Any user A person who accesses the online resourceactivity that can be attributed to a Dataset will be considered an Investigation, including downloading or viewing the Dataset. Requests are limited to user A person who accesses the online resourceactivity related to retrieving or viewing the Dataset itself.

Total_Dataset, Unique_Dataset
The metric types An attribute of COUNTER usage that identifies the nature of the usage activity.that begin with Total_ mean that if a dataset See “Data_Type”.was accessed multiple times in a user A person who accesses the online resourcesession, the metric would increase by the number of times the Dataset was accessed (minus any adjustments for double-clicks).

Unique_Dataset metrics help eliminate the effect different styles of user A person who accesses the online resourceinterface may have on usage counts. If the same dataset See “Data_Type”.was accessed multiple times in a given user A person who accesses the online resourcesession, the corresponding metric can only increase by 1 to simply indicate that the dataset See “Data_Type”.was accessed in the session.

Table 3.5: List of Metric Types

Metric Type Description Host Type Reports
Total_Dataset_Investigations Total number of times a Dataset See “Data_Type”.or information related to a Dataset See “Data_Type”.was accessed and the data volume Journals:  Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of a minimum of one journal issue; in printed form, volumes of more than one issue A collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of journal articles associated with each other via allocation of a specific issue number and presented as an identifiable unit online and/or as a physically bound and covered set of numbered pages in printare not normally bound together by the publisher, but are frequently bound together in hardback by the purchasing library to aid preservation of the printed product. Books: Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of articles, chapters, or entries that is part of a larger, multi-volume work, either published together or seriallyin megabytes that was transferred. Double click filters Limits or restrictions placed on the usage to be included in a COUNTER report usually expressed as a name-value pair, i.e. “Access_Type=Controlled”are applied to these transactions. Investigations (counts and volume) are reported for each version of the Dataset See “Data_Type”.and for the cumulative total across versions. Repository

Data Repository

DSR
Unique_Dataset_Investigations Number of datasets investigated in unique user-sessions. If investigations for multiple components of the same Dataset See “Data_Type”.occur in the same user-session, there MUST be only one “unique” activity counted for that Dataset. Investigations (counts and volume) are reported for each version of the Dataset See “Data_Type”.and for the cumulative total across versions. Repository

Data Repository

DSR
Total_Dataset_Requests Total number of times a Dataset See “Data_Type”.was retrieved (the content was accessed or downloaded in full or a section of it) and the data volume Journals:  Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of a minimum of one journal issue; in printed form, volumes of more than one issue A collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of journal articles associated with each other via allocation of a specific issue number and presented as an identifiable unit online and/or as a physically bound and covered set of numbered pages in printare not normally bound together by the publisher, but are frequently bound together in hardback by the purchasing library to aid preservation of the printed product. Books: Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of articles, chapters, or entries that is part of a larger, multi-volume work, either published together or seriallyin megabytes that was transferred. Double-click filters Limits or restrictions placed on the usage to be included in a COUNTER report usually expressed as a name-value pair, i.e. “Access_Type=Controlled”applied. Requests (counts and volume) are reported for each version of the Dataset See “Data_Type”.and for the cumulative total across versions. Repository

Data Repository

DSR
Unique_Dataset_Requests Number and data volume Journals:  Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of a minimum of one journal issue; in printed form, volumes of more than one issue A collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of journal articles associated with each other via allocation of a specific issue number and presented as an identifiable unit online and/or as a physically bound and covered set of numbered pages in printare not normally bound together by the publisher, but are frequently bound together in hardback by the purchasing library to aid preservation of the printed product. Books: Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of articles, chapters, or entries that is part of a larger, multi-volume work, either published together or seriallyof Datasets requested in unique user-sessions. If requests for multiple components of the same Dataset See “Data_Type”.occur in the same user-session, there MUST be only one “unique” activity counted for that Dataset. Requests (counts and volume) are reported for each version of the Dataset See “Data_Type”.and for the cumulative total across versions. Repository

Data Repository

DSR

3.3.5 Access Methods

In order to track content usage by machines, and to keep that usage separate from regular A COUNTER “Access_Method”. Indicates that usage was generated by a human user A person who accesses the online resourcebrowsing/searching a website, rather than by “Text and Data Mining” (“TDM”) processes.usage by humans, the Access_Method attribute is used.

Table 3.6: List of Access Methods

Access_Method Description Host Type Reports
Regular Refers to activities on a platform An interface from a “Content Provider” that delivers the content to the user A person who accesses the online resourceand that counts and provides the COUNTER usage reports.or content host A website that provides access to content typically accessed by patrons of libraries and other research institutions.that represent typical user A person who accesses the online resourcebehavior. Repository

Data Repository

 

DSR
Machine Refers to activities on a platform An interface from a “Content Provider” that delivers the content to the user A person who accesses the online resourceand that counts and provides the COUNTER usage reports.or content host A website that provides access to content typically accessed by patrons of libraries and other research institutions.that represent typical machine behavior. This includes only legitimate machine access and excludes internet robots and crawlers (see Section 7.8). Repository

Data Repository

 

DSR

 

3.3.6 Year of Publication (YOP)

Analyzing collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.usage by the age of the content is also desired. The “YOP” usage attribute represents year of publication.

Table 3.7: Year of Publication Formatting

YOP Description Host Type Reports
yyyy The Year of Publication for the item Collective term for content which is reported at a high level of granularity, e.g. “Full Text Article” (original or a review of other published work); an “Abstract” or digest of a “Full Text Article”; a sectional HTML Article formatted in HTML so as to be readable by a web browser Hypertext Markup Language. A form of text markup readable by web browserspage; supplementary material associated with a “Full Text Article” (e.g. a supplementary data set), or non-textual resources, such as an image, a video, audio, dataset, piece of code, chemical structure or reaction.as a four-digit year. If the year of publication Calendar year in which an “Article”, “Item”, “Issue” or volume Journals:  Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of a minimum of one journal issue; in printed form, volumes of more than one issue A collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of journal articles associated with each other via allocation of a specific issue number and presented as an identifiable unit online and/or as a physically bound and covered set of numbered pages in printare not normally bound together by the publisher, but are frequently bound together in hardback by the purchasing library to aid preservation of the printed product. Books: Numbered collection A subset of the content of a service; a collection is a branded group of online information products from one or more content providers that can be subscribed to/licensed and searched as a complete group. For the COUNTER reporting is restricted to pre-set collections that are defined like “Databases”. See “Database”. Note a package or bundle provided by a publisher is not considered a “Database” or “Collection”.of articles, chapters, or entries that is part of a larger, multi-volume work, either published together or seriallyis published. For the COUNTER “YOP” attribute, use the year of publication for the print when it differs from the online.is not known, use a value of 0001. Repository

Data Repository

 

DSR

 

 

3.3.7 Partial Monthly Reports

The Reporting_Period The total time period covered in a usage report.can end before the last day of the month, in which case the report for that month will be partial. This enables incremental updates of usage reporting during the course of a month. These incremental updates always replace the previous report for that month. Reporting of usage broken down by day is not supported in this release of the Code of Practice for Research Data Data that supports research findings and may include “Databases”, spreadsheets, tables, raw transaction logs, etc.Usage Metrics.

3.3.8 Zero Usage

Inclusion of zero-usage reporting for everything, including unsubscribed content, could make reports unmanageably large.

  • For tabular reports
    • Omit any row where the Reporting Period The total time period covered in a usage report.Total would be zero.
    • If the Reporting Period The total time period covered in a usage report.Total is >0, but usage for an included month is zero, set the cell value for that month to 0.
  • For SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.version of reports
    • Omit any Instance element with a count of zero.
    • Omit Performance elements that don’t have at least one Instance
    • Omit ReportItems elements that don’t have at least one Performance

3.3.9 Missing and Unknown Field Values

  • For tabular reports
    • If a field value is missing or unknown (i.e. the DOI The “Digital Object Identifier” is a means of persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property (a creation) on a digital network, irrespective of its current location (www.doi.org) “DOIs” may be assigned at the “Title”, “Article”/”Chapter”, or “Component” levelfor an item Collective term for content which is reported at a high level of granularity, e.g. “Full Text Article” (original or a review of other published work); an “Abstract” or digest of a “Full Text Article”; a sectional HTML Article formatted in HTML so as to be readable by a web browser Hypertext Markup Language. A form of text markup readable by web browserspage; supplementary material associated with a “Full Text Article” (e.g. a supplementary data set), or non-textual resources, such as an image, a video, audio, dataset, piece of code, chemical structure or reaction.doesn’t exist or isn’t known), the field MUST be left blank. For clarity, the field MUST NOT contain values such as “unknown” or “n/a”.
  • For SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.version of reports
    • If the value of a field is missing or unknown and the Research Data SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.API Specification (see Section 8) indicates the field is REQUIRED, the value of the field MUST be expressed as empty as appropriate for the data type.
    • If the value of a field is missing or unknown and the field is not REQUIRED according to the Research Data SUSHI An international standard (Z39-93) that describes a method for automating the harvesting of reports.  COUNTER_SUSHI is an implementation of this standard for harvesting COUNTER reports. COUNTER compliance requires “Content Providers” to implement COUNTER_SUSHI.API Specification, the field MUST be omitted from the response.

 


How to become Counter Compliant

All academic libraries across the world use and trust COUNTER usage reports to inform renewal and new purchasing decisions, to inform faculty about the value of the library and its resources and to understand user behaviour and improve the user experience.

Counter will help publishers and vendors to become compliant. The The Friendly Guide for Providers Release 5  and Technical Notes and will provide the information you will need to start the process. Content providers transitioning from Release 4 to Release 5 compliance will also find transition timeline useful in their planning.

Audit Process

To comply with the Code of Practice, publishers and vendors must be independently audited within six months of signing the Declaration of COUNTER Compliance, and annually thereafter.

There are three approved COUNTER auditors:

COUNTER will also accept an audit by any Chartered Accountant (UK), CPA (USA) or their equivalent elsewhere.

 
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